Men and Father Issues Gain Media Attention

September 26, 2008
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In the last couple of weeks, men and fathers have made some headway in gaining recognition in the area of serious family issues.
What’s most interesting here is the paradigm shift that is taking place in the mainstream media.

Last week, ABC’s 20/20 aired a segment about Alec Baldwin and his custody battle with ex-wife Kim Basinger concerning their daughter Ireland. Everyone is familiar with Baldwin’s vicious voice mail rant he left for his daughter, but Baldwin tells his side of the story in the interview and in his new book “A Promise to Ourselves.”

Diane Sawyer of 20/20 conducted the interview and was willing to adress the controversial topic of Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS), something Baldwin and father’s rights advocates have been trying to raise awareness to in the family courts system. PAS is still controversial because it has not been validated by sufficient research – yet.
PAS is based on the belief that present in some bitter custody cases, one parent, usually the mother, will manipulate and brainwash the child/children into believing negative, false, and damaging stories about the other parent such as: the other parent does not love them, will harm them, will never bring them home again (kidnap them), etc.
This invokes tremendous fear into the child/children and can be used by the manipulating parent to try and prove false accusations of abuse against the other parent (“See how fearful the child is of him/her? This behavior proves he/she was abusing them!”). Or it is done to enable the manipulating parent to win a custody battle because a judge, upon seeing this type of parental fear in a child, will be heavily influenced in his/her judgment of who will be awarded custody.

I personally believe it to be true. Common sense and personal experience tells me that it’s true. However, feminist are trying stop the courts from accepting PAS as a legitimate diagnoses. They promote the theory that women simply do not do this, and furthermore, feminist reiterate that there is insufficient research to prove PAS is legitimate.
I’m always amazed how feminist’s, who have been caught perpetuating false research over the years, have the audacity to challenge the research and creditability of PAS with such hubris. One would think if they had any moral integrity, they would be more concerned with taking responsibility for their own fallacies and trying to re-establish their own credibility rather than organizing future events that are concerned only with trying to destroy the credibility of others before the final data is in.
And it should be noted that feminist and women organizations have repeatedly stated on record that they believe fathers who eagerly pursue custody of their child/children are nothing more than pedophiles and abusers who want to further victimize their wives and children.

So while signing books at a New York city book store, Baldwin’s book and his appearance was protested outside by a women’s group called Voices of Women Organizing Project. About twenty women from this organization protested Baldwin’s support and advocacy for PAS and fathers’ rights.
However, it should be noted that Baldwin’s appearance at the book store was standing room only, with an equal attendance of women and men, and the crowd was receptive to Baldwin’s talk on PAS, a biased and faulty family court system, and of his criticism of feminists and their practices.
Chalk one up for the good guys!

Here are the stories and video clip.

Alec Baldwin on Divorce, Children and Reconciliation

I can’t go on; I will go on: Baldwin promotes book

A story turned up on Glen Sacks website called “When dad is just bad” by columnist Mindelle Jacobs. Jacobs wrote about an international domestic violence conference and reported on some of the comments being distributed by the members of the conference.

Rita Smith, executive director of the U.S. National Coalition Against Domestic Violence, said her experience of men working on fathers’ rights is that many of the leaders are abusers or were accused of abuse.
Smith then states, “The agenda, often by the leadership, is to completely undermine women’s rights,” she said. “The ones that are the most dangerous are, in fact, creating safety problems for women and children.”

These sexist and malicious comments caused a firestorm among men and fathers’ rights groups, which then flooded Jacobs with protest e-mails. Jacobs stated that she was just the messenger, and she wrote the column because she thought the comments were controversial.
In response to the protesters, she then ran a follow-up column called “Divorced from reality”.
Some quotes:

Men wrote about being assaulted by their wives – with no subsequent charges by the police. They complained about the nasty games women play to cut them out of their kids’ lives.

Former Edmonton lawyer Grant Brown has heard it all. He quit practising law in March after only four years as a lawyer because he’s sick of dealing with what he describes as a dysfunctional family law system.
“I couldn’t hack it anymore,” says the 50-year-old who’s writing a book called Deadbeat Judges.
“The thesis of my book is that judges actually create the deadbeats. They make such harsh orders against fathers and give fathers no rights,” he says. “A lot of (dads) just give up.”
Police, prosecutors and judges are generally harsher with men in domestic abuse cases, says Brown. And, he adds, judges rarely punish women who violate court orders.
“Dads can spend thousands and thousands of dollars trying to see their kids and the judges do nothing to make it happen,” says Brown.

I would like to extend my gratitude to Mindelle Jacobs for allowing both sides to be heard.

Another women who deserves a shout out is Katie Balestra for her column Taking a New Tack on Domestic Violence which reveals the new approach to diminishing domestic violence by not just focusing on the victim, but by also focusing on the abuser. In my four part series, Domestic Violence Prevention – More Hyperbole Than Truth, I covered this new appraoch and explained how the current model for DV prevention is based more on sexist politics than actually trying to diminish the violence.
Balestra writes in her article:

Amid the launch of the federal Responsible Fatherhood and Healthy Marriage initiatives two years ago, social service agencies and industry experts have begun to recognize the importance not just of helping victims of domestic violence but also of treating the batterers themselves in programs such as the House of Ruth’s Gateway Project.
“No matter how many women you take in, it isn’t going to cure the problem,” said Toby Myers, vice chair of the National Center on Domestic and Sexual Violence, a nonprofit based in Austin.

Balestra also looks at a another insidious side to DV prevention industry – discrimination and money.
She writes:

Abuser programs are like “a stepchild” in the field of domestic violence, says Edward Gondolf, research director of the Mid-Atlantic Addiction Research and Training Institute, who believes the programs offer “a really important laboratory to understand domestic violence and its workings.” At the Crisis Intervention Center in Calvert County, for example, victims get about 10 times more one-on-one counseling than abusers; one full-time therapist worked with 392 abusers last year, while six therapists, three of them full-time and three part-time, treated 207 victims.

“Sometimes you feel like the lone wolf,” Nitsch says. “We can’t compete with victims’ services, particularly when you’re talking about private donors. To be able to say, ‘I helped build a shelter’ feels better to them than to say, ‘I funded classes for abusers.’ ” It’s disheartening, she says, that “some people don’t view abuser intervention as a victims’ service.”

And Balestra covers the financial discrimination between victim and abuser resources:

In 2005, the latest year for which figures are available, the Justice Department gave abuser programs only a fraction of the $113.9 million that was doled out for domestic violence prevention through its largest grant program, Stop Violence Against Women. About 35 percent went to victim services, about half to law enforcement and prosecution services and just $5.4 million, or about 5 percent, to courts for programs including abuser intervention. Officials in Maryland and the District said their batterer programs receive no funding from these grants.

As I stated in my column, one of the main reasons DV is still a problem is because the model used to address DV issues advocates that only men are abusers, and that anger management classes will solve the problem with these men.
Not so.
If the inherent cause for the abusive behavior is not found and treated, the abuser will abuse again. Anger management classes will never accomplish this.
Balestra writes:

Some experts say part of the problem with obtaining funding for abuser programs is that many of them are ineffective, depending on an outdated treatment model developed in Duluth, Minn., in 1981 that, critics say, largely pins the blame on men seeking to assert power and control over women. This standard, the experts say, doesn’t allow for cycles of “mutual violence” — the recognition that women can be abusers — and the use of cognitive behavioral therapy techniques for treatment.

Donald Dutton, a professor of psychology at the University of British Columbia, refers to the old models as “shaming” programs.
“It’s been demonstrated repeatedly that psycho-educational models don’t work,” he said, “and then half the guys repeat” their abusive behavior. The Duluth model assumes the male is always wrong, says Janet Scott, the abuser program coordinator at the Calvert County center. Scott developed a group for female abusers in 2001.

Understanding that breaking the habit of domestic abuse involves a more complex process of reflection is part of the goal at Baltimore’s Gateway Project.

What I find most interesting about these three stories is how the mainstream media seems to be entering a period of recognizing that men and father have relevant issues. And by reporting on them and raising awareness to them, they are doing what they have done for women and their issues for a long time now – giving them the respect and validity they deserve.

I hope the trend continues.

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11 Responses to Men and Father Issues Gain Media Attention

  1. shivers on September 26, 2008 at 8:13 pm

    For every person who can write "common sense and personal experience tell me it's true" there's another that can write "common sense and personal experience tell me it's NOT true" Such is my personal experience. Forget common sense, let's look at the research, and yes, there is some done. Maternal alienation is real, it happens. There is absolutely NO research WORLDWIDE that confirms that women use false allegations of abuse in courts to 'get back' at their spouse. None, whatsoever, although community surveys show that as much as 46% of people believe that women do this. A 2003 Canadian Study shows that 98% of abuse allegations in courts are FUNDAMENTALLY sound. It is also proven in many Men's Intervention Programmes that men are notorious for minimising and denying their abuse. In fact as many as 40% of men will say that using force or violence in a relationship is justified, going off from this then it's only a small step to believing that men engage in PAS MORE than women do. Research also shows that women actually WANT contact for their children with their fathers, they just want the fathers to a) be interested, b) not be abusive and scare the kids. For some people, perhaps the writer of this article, you have to experience it to believe it.

  2. J. Soltys on September 27, 2008 at 12:52 am

    To shivers,

    You said: "There is absolutely NO research WORLDWIDE that confirms that women use false allegations of abuse in courts to ‘get back’ at their spouse."

    I think you should have done your homework before writing your response. A researcher named Richard Gardner was one of the leading experts on PAS until his death a few years back.
    Also, J. Michael Bone, Ph.D., P.A., L.M.H.C. has covered PAS extensively, and there is still more, including a group called the Canadian Symposium for Parental Alienation. "The Canadian Symposium For Parental Alienation Syndrome (CS – PAS), is an educational conference for Canadian and international mental health professionals, family law attorney's and other professionals dedicated to the prevention and treatment of Parental Alienation and Parental Alienation Syndrome."

    Let me clarify: The problem with PAS is that it is a relatively new syndrome, and therefore, it must under go extreme scrutiny before it will be accepted. Remember, alcoholism was considered a "defect" of character before it was designated as a disease.

    SECTION 1

    Articles by Richard A. Gardner, M.D. on parental alienation syndrome that have been published or accepted for publication in professional outlets. (23 items)

    1. Gardner, R. A. (1985), Recent trends in divorce and custody litigation. The Academy Forum, 29(2)3-7. New York: The American Academy of Psychoanalysis.
    2. Gardner, R. A. (1987), Child Custody. In Basic Handbook of Child Psychiatry, ed. J.Noshpitz, Vol. V, pp. 637- 646. New York: Basic Books, Inc.
    3. Gardner, R. A. (1987), Judges interviewing children in custody/visitation litigation. New Jersey Family Lawyer, 7(2):26ff.
    4. Gardner, R. A. (1991), Legal and psychotherapeutic approaches to the three types of parental alienation syndrome families: when psychiatry and the law join forces. Court Review, 28(l):14-21.
    5. Gardner, R. A. (1994), The Detrimental Effects on Women of the Misguided Gender Egalitarianism of Child-Custody Dispute Resolution Guidelines. The Academy Forum. 38 (1/2): 10-13. New York: The American Academy of Psychoanalysis.
    6. Gardner, R. A. (1997), Recommendations for Dealing with Parents Who Induce a Parental Alienation Syndrome in Their Children. Issues in Child Abuse Accusations, 8(3):174-178.
    7. Gardner, R. A. (1998), Recommendations for Dealing with Parents Who Induce a Parental Alienation Syndrome in Their Children. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage , 28 (3/4):1-23.
    8. Gardner, R. A. (1999), Differentiating between the parental alienation syndrome and bona fide abuse/neglect . American Journal of Family Therapy, 27(2):97-107.
    9. Gardner, R.A.(1999), Family Therapy of the Moderate Type of parental Alienation Syndrome. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 27(3):195-212.
    10. Gardner, R.A.(1999), Guidelines for Assessing Parental Preference in Child-Custody Disputes. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 30(1/2):1-9.
    11. Gardner, R.A.(2001), The Parental Alienation Syndrome: Sixteen Years Later. The Academy Forum. New York: The American Academy of Psychoanalysis, 45(1):10-12.
    12. Gardner, R.A.(2001), Should Courts Order PAS Children to Visit/Reside with the Alienated Parent? A Follow-up Study. American Journal of Forensic Psychology. 19(3):61-106.
    1. Gardner, R.A. (2002), Sollten Gerichte anordnen, daß an PAS leindende Kinder den antfremdeten Elternteil besuchen bzw. bei ihm wohnen? In: Das elterliche Entfremdungssyndrom. Anregungen für gerichtliche Sorge- und Umgangsregelungen. Berlin: Verlag für Wissenschaft und Bildung, pp.23-95.
    13. Gardner, R.A. (2002), The Empowerment of Children in the Development of the Parental Alienation Syndrome. The American Journal of Forensic Psychology , 20(2):5-29
    14. Gardner, R.A. (2002), Parental Alienation Syndrome vs. Parental Alienation: Which Diagnosis Should Evaluators Use in Child-Custody Litigation? The American Journal of Family Therapy, 30(2):101-123.
    15. Gardner, R.A. (2002), Denial of the Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS) Also Harms Women. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 30(3):191-202.
    16. Gardner, R.A. (2002), Does DSM-IV Have Equivalents for the Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS) Diagnosis? American Journal of Family Therapy, 31(1):1-21.
    17. Gardner, R.A. (2003), The Judiciary's Role in the Etiology, Symptom Development, and Treatment of The Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS). American Journal of of Forensic Psychology, 21(1):39-64.
    18. Gardner, R.A. (2003), The Parental Alienation Syndrome: Past, Present, and Future. In The Parental Alienation Syndrome: An Interdisciplinary Challenge for Professionals Involved in Divorce., eds. W. von Boch-Gallhau, U. Kodjoe, W Andritsky, and P. Koeppel, pp. 89-125. Berlin, Germany: VWB-Verlag für Wissenshaft and Bildung.
    19. Gardner, R.A. (2003), How Denying and Discrediting the Parental Alienation Syndrome Harms Women., eds. W. von Boch-Gallhau, U. Kodjoe, W Andritsky, and P. Koeppel, pp. 121-142. Berlin, Germany: VWB-Verlag für Wissenshaft and Bildung.
    20. Gardner R.A. (2004), The Relationship Between the Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS) and the False Memory Syndrome (FMS), American Journal of Family Therapy, 32, 79-99.
    21. Gardner, R.A. (2004), The Three Levels of Parental Alienation Syndrome Alienators, American Journal of Forensic Psychiatry, 25, 41.
    22. Gardner, R.A. (2004), Commentary on Kelly and Johnston's "The Alienated Child: A Reformulation of Parental Alienation Syndrome." Family Court Review, 42, 622-628.
    23. Gardner, R.A. (2006), The Parental Alienation Syndrome and the Corruptive Power of Anger. In The International Handbook of Parental Alienation Syndrome, eds. R. A. Gardner, S. R. Sauber, D. Lorandos, pp. 33-48, Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

    SECTION 2

    Articles and chapters in edited books, by authors other than Dr. Gardner, that discuss parental alienation syndrome. (131 items)

    1. Palmer, N.R. (1988), Legal Recognition of the Parental Alienation Syndrome. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 16(4):361-363.
    2. Byrne, K. (1989), Brainwashing in Custody Cases: The Parental Alienation Syndrome. Australian Family Lawyer, 4(3):1-4.
    3. Goldwater, A. (1991). Le Syndrome D'aliénation Parentale (in English). In Développements récents en droight familial (pp. 121-145). Cowansville, Quebec: Les Editions Yvon Blais.
    4. Clawar, S. S. and Riviin, B. V. (1991), Children Held Hostage: Dealing with Programmed and Brainwashed Children. Chicago, Illinois: American Bar Association.
    5. Cartwright, G.F. (1993). Expanding the Parameters of Parental Alienation Syndrome. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 21(3):205-215.
    6. Dunne, J. and Hedrick, (1994), The Parental Alienation Syndrome: An Analysis of Sixteen Selected Cases. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 21(3/4):21-38.
    7. Price, J. and Pioske, K, (1994), Parental Alienation Syndrome: A Developmental Analysis of a Vulnerable Population . Journal of Psychosocial Nursing, 32(11):9-12.
    8. Lund, M. (1995), A Therapist's View of Parental Alienation Syndrome. Family and Conciliation Courts Review, 33(3):308-316.
    9. Cooke, L. (1995), Parental Alienation Syndrome: A "Hidden" Facet of Custody Disputes, First Place: Canadian Bar Association 1995 Lieff Award.
    10. Bergman, Z.B. and Weitzman, E. (1995) Parental Kidnapping and Parental Alienation Syndrome. Sichot (Hebrew) 9(2): 115-130.
    11. Waldron, K.H. and Joanis, D.E. (1996), Understanding and Collaboratively Treating Parental Alienation Syndrome, Journal of Family Law, 10:121-133.
    12. Garber, B.D. (1996), Alternatives to Parental Alienation Syndrome: Acknowledging the Broader Scope of Children's Emotional Difficulties During Parental Separation and Divorce. New Hampshire Bar Journal, March 1996:51-54.
    13. Klenner, W. (1996). Rituale der Umangsvereitalung bei getrennt lebenden oder geschiedenen Eltern, FamRZ Heft 24, page 1529-1535.
    14. Walsh, M. R. and Bone, J. M. (1997), Parental Alienation Syndrome: An Age-old Custody Problem. The Florida Bar Journal, LXXI(6):93-96.
    15. Rand, D.C. (1997a), The Spectrum of Parental Alienation Syndrome (part I). American Journal of Forensic Psychology. 15(3):23-51.
    16. Rand, D.C. (1997b), The Spectrum of Parental Alienation Syndrome (part II). American Journal of Forensic Psychology. 15(4):39-92.
    17. Turkat, I.D. (1997), Management of Visitation Interference.The Judges Journal 36:2:17-47.
    18. Borris, E.B. (1997), Interference with Parental Rights of Noncustodial parent as Grounds for Modification of Child Custody, Divorce Litigation, January 1997, p. 1-13.
    19. Willbourne, C. and Cull, L. (1997), The Emerging Problem of Parental Alienation. Family Law (British Publication) December, 1997, p. 807-808.
    20. Levita Z. et al (1997) Contact Refusal: Parent-Child Conflict in Separation and Divorce Sichot, (Hebrew) 11(2).
    21. Gould, J. W. (1998), ?Conducting Scientifically Crafted Child Custody Evaluations.Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.
    22. Gordon, R. M. (1998), The medea complex and the parental alienation syndrome: when mothers damage their daughters' ability to love a man. In The Mother-Daughter Relationship: Echoes Through Time, ed. G. G. Fenchel, pp. 207-225. Northvale, New Jersey: Jason Aronson, Inc.
    23. Kodjoe, von U.O. and Koeppel, P. (1998), The Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS). Der Amtsvormund, Heidelberg, Germany. January 1998, pp. 9-26. and 135-140.
    24. von Leitner, W. and Schoeler, R. (1998), Maßnahmen und Empfehlungen für das Umgangsverfahren im Blickfeld einer Differentialdiagnose bei Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS) unterschiedlicher Ausprägung in Anlehnung an Gardner (1992/1997), (translation: Measurement and Reccommendations for Access Proceedings in accordance with the Differential Diagnosis in different degrees of PAS according to Gardner {1992/1997}). Der Amtsvormund, Heidelberg, Germany. November/December, 1998, pp. 849-868.
    25. Kodjoe, U. (1998). Ein Fall von PAS, KindPrax , 6/1998, pp. 172-174.
    26. Kodjoe, U. & Koeppel, P. (1998). Fruherkennung von PAS – Möglichkeiten psychologischer und rechtlicher Interventionen, KindPrax., 5/98, pages 138-144.
    27. Fischer, W. (1998). Das Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS) und die Interessenvertretung des Kindes – Ein Interventionsmodell für Jugendhilfe und Gericht – Teil 1, Nachrichten Dienst-des Deutschen Veriens für öffentliche und private Fürsorge, Heft 10/98, pages 306-309.
    28. Fischer, W. (1998). Das Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS) und die Interessenvertretung des Kindes – Ein Interventionsmodell für Jugendhilfe und Gericht – Teil 2, Nachrichten Dienst-des Deutschen Veriens für öffentliche und private Fürsorge, Heft 11/98, pages 343-348.
    29. Maidment, S. (1998), Parental Alienation Syndrome-A Judicial Response? Family Law, May 1998, pp. 264-266. (U.K.)
    30. Kopetski, L. (1998), Identifying Cases of Parental Alienation Syndrome-Part I. The Colorado Lawyer , 27(2):65-68.
    31. Kopetski, L. (1998), Identifying Cases of Parental Alienation Syndrome-Part II. The Colorado Lawyer , 27(3):61-64.
    32. Lowenstein, L. F. (1998), Parent Alienation Syndrome: a two-step approach toward a solution. Contemporary Family Therapy, 20(4): 505-520.
    33. Lowenstein, L. F. (1998), Parent Alienation Syndrome: a two-step approach toward a solution. In Paedophilia: The Sexual Abuse of Children. ed L.F. Lowenstein, Great Britain: Able Publishing.
    34. Salzgeber, J. and Stadler, M. (1998), Beziehung kontra Erziehung. Kritische Anmerkungen zur aktuellen Rezeption von PAS. KindPrax 6/98, pp. 167-171.
    35. Siegel, J. C. and Langford, J. S. (1998), MMPI-2 Validity Scales and Suspected Parental Alienation Syndrome. American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 16(4): 5-14.
    36. Lowenstein, L. F. (1998), Parental Alienation Syndrome: What the Legal Profession Should Know. Medico-Legal Journal 66(4):151-161.
    37. Zander, J., Theunissen, W. and van Aliena (1999), Het Ouderverstotingssyndroom in de Nederlandse (The Parental Alienation Syndrome in the Netherlands). Servo Assen.
    38. Lowenstein, L. F. (1999), Parental Alienation Syndrome. Justice of the Peace (U.K.), 163(3):446-450.
    39. Stadler, M. and Salzgeber, J. (1999), Parental Alienation Syndrom (PAS)-alter Wein in Neuen Schläuchen? FPR 4/99, pp 231-235.
    40. Bakalar, E. (1998), Das Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS) in der Tschechischen Republic; Zentralblatt für Jugendrecht (Zfj Jhg. 85, Nr. 6/98, S. 268).
    41. Leitner, W. G. (1999), Intervention-guided single case-help and parental alienation syndrome (PAS): differential diagnosis and treatment approaches. In Identity and Self-Esteem: Interactions of Students, Teachers, Family and Society, eds. S. Sebre, M. Rascevska, and S. Miezite, pp. 253-260. Riga: SIA, "Macibu Apgadj NT"
    42. Boch-Galhau, W.V., (1999) Das Parental Alienation Syndrom, Das Wohl und die Interessenvertretung des Kindes. Vortrag beim Interessenverband Unterhalt und Familienrecht (ISV/VDU) am 26. März 1999 in Würzburg; ISUV Report Nr. 80 (1999)4-5 und Nr. 81:6-8.
    43. Lowenstein, L.F. (1999), Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS). Justice of the Peace, 163 (Jan 16):47-50.
    44. Bone, J.M. and Walsh, M.R. (1999). Parental Alienation Syndrome: How to Detect It and What to Do About It. The Florida Bar Journal, 73(3):44-48.
    45. Lamontagne, P. (1999), Syndrome dâ Alienation Parentale: Contexte et Piges de lâ Intervention. In: Gyseghem, H. van (1999) Us et Abus de la mise en mots en matire dâabus sexuel, MontrŽal, MŽridien, pp. 177 ö 200.
    46. Major, J.A. (1999), Parents Who Have Successfully Fought Parental Alienation Syndrome. Aspen Family Law Journal. (in press).
    47. Vestal, A. (1999), Mediation and Parental Alienation Syndrome. Family and Conciliation Courts Review, 37(4): 487-503.
    48. Warshak, R.A. (1999), Psychological Syndromes:Parental Alienation Syndrome. Expert Witness Manual, Chapter 3-32. Dallas, TX: State Bar of Texas, Family Law Section.
    49. Salzgeber, J., Stadler, M., Schmidt, S.M., Partale, C.,(1999), Umgangsprobleme-Ursachen des Kontaktabbruchs durch das Kind jenseits des Parental Alienation Syndrome; Kind-Prax 4/99, S. 107-111.
    50. Warshak, R.A. (2000), Remarriage as a Trigger of Parental Alienation Syndrome," American Journal of Family Therapy, 28: 229-241.
    51. Ellils, E. M. (2000), Divorce Wars Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
    52. Brandes, J.R. (2000), Parental Alienation. New York Law Journal, March 26, 2000, pp. 3 ff.
    53. Kodjoe, U (2000), Auswirkungen des Vater-Kind-Kontaktverlustes: der immaterielle Schaden aus psychologischer Sicht Anmerkungen zur Elsholz-Entscheidung des Europ. Gerichtschofs für Menschenrechte. Der Amtsvormund 8/2000, pp. 641-643.
    54. Weidenbach, J.(2000), Dein Papa is ganz böse. Psychologie Heute 2/2000, pp 40-45.
    55. Jopt, U. J./Behrend, K. (2000) Das Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS) ö Ein Zwei-Phasen-Modell, Zentralblatt für Jugendrecht (ZfJ) 87 (6) 2000, S. 223 ö 231, ZfJ 87 (7) 2000, S. 258 – 271.
    56. Ellis, E.M. (2000), Parental Alienation Syndrome: A new challenge for family courts. In E. M. Ellis (Ed.), Divorce wars : Interventions with families in conflict (pp.205-234). Washington DC: APA Books.
    57. Schršder, U. (2000): Umgangsrecht und falsch verstandenes Wohlverhaltensgebot Auswirkungen auf Trennungskinder und Entstehen des so genannten PA-Syndroms (English Translation: Visitation rights and missunderstanding of the rule to cooperate Effects on children of divorce and the development of the
    PA-syndrome) Zeitschrift fŸr das gesamte Familienrecht (FamRZ) 47 (10): 592 596.
    58. Von Boch-Galhau, W., (2001), Trennung und Scheidung im Hinblick auf die Kinder und die Auswirkungen auf das Erwachsenleben, unter besonderer Berüucksichtigung des Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS). In: Eltern sägen ihr Kind entzwei: Trennungserfahrungen und Entfremdung von einem Elternteil. Ed. S. Bäuerle and H. Moll-Strobel, Donauwörth, Germany: Auer Verlag. pp. 37-64.
    59. Kodjoe, U. (2001), Die feindselige Ablehnung eines Elternteils durch sein Kind (psychologischer Aspekt). In: Eltern sägen ihr Kind entzwei: Trennungserfahrungen und Entfremdung von einem Elternteil. Ed. S. Bäuerle and H. Moll-Strobel, Donauwörth, Germany: Auer Verlag. pp. 26-36.
    60. Koeppel, P. (2001), PAS und das deutsche Kindschaftsrecht (juristischer Aspekt). In: Eltern sägen ihr Kind entzwei: Trennungserfahrungen und Entfremdung von einem Elternteil. Ed. S. Bäuerle and H. Moll-Strobel, Donauwörth, Germany: Auer Verlag. pp. 65-78.
    61. Moll-Strobel, H. (2001), Die Bedeutung von Mutter, Vater und Geschwistern für das heranwaschsende Kind und das Triangulierungskonzept. In: Eltern sägen ihr Kind entzwei: Trennungserfahrungen und Entfremdung von einem Elternteil. Ed. S. Bäuerle and H. Moll-Strobel, Donauwörth, Germany: Auer Verlag. pp. 108-115.
    62. Moll-Strobel, H. (2001), Pädagogische Handlungsperspektiven und schulische sowie unterrichtliche Interventionsmöglichkeiten. In: Eltern sägen ihr Kind entzwei: Trennungserfahrungen und Entfremdung von einem Elternteil. Ed. S. Bäuerle and H. Moll-Strobel, Donauwörth, Germany: Auer Verlag. pp. 116-124.
    63. Warshak, R.A. (2001), Current Controversies Regarding Parental Alienation Syndrome. American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 19(3):29-59.
    64. Fischer, W.(2001), Funktion des Verhfahrenspflegers bei Umgangsstreitigkeiten (sozial pädagogischer und mediatorischer Aspekt). In: Eltern sägen ihr Kind entzwei: Trennungserfahrungen und Entfremdung von einem Elternteil. Ed. S. Bäuerle and H. Moll-Strobel, Donauwörth, Germany: Auer Verlag. pp. 79-95.
    65. Vassiliou, D. and Cartwright, G.F. (2001), The Lost Parent's Perspective on Parental Alienation Syndrome. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 29(3): 181-191.
    66. Berns, S. (2001), Parents Behaving Badly: Parental Alienation Syndrome in the Family Court Magic Bullet or Poisoned Chalice? Australian Journal of Family Law. 15(3): 191-214.
    67. Fegert, J.M., (2001), Parental Alienation oder Parental Accusation Syndrome? Die Frage der Suggestibilität, Beeinflussung und Induktion in Umgangsrechsgutachten. KindPrax 1/2001, pp. 3-7.
    68. Burrill-O'Donnell, J. (2001), Parental Alienation Syndrome in Court Referred Custody Cases. Dissertation. (www.dissertation.com/library/1121490a.htm)
    69. Binckli, J. (2001), Trennung von Kindern und Geschwistern (soziologischer und politischer Aspekt)-Eine Fallgeschichte. In: Eltern sägen ihr Kind entzwei: Trennungserfahrungen und Entfremdung von einem Elternteil. Ed. S. Bäuerle and H. Moll-Strobel, Donauwörth, Germany: Auer Verlag. pp. 96-107.
    70. Suren, A.: Das Parental Alienation Syndrom (PAS) Belastungsreaktionen und BewŠltigungsstrategien betroffener MŸtter [english translation: The Parental Alienation Syndrome(PAS): Stress Reactions and Coping Strategies of Afflicted Mothers] (Diplomarbeit an der FakultŠt fŸr Psychologie und Sportwissenschaften, Abteilung fŸr Psychologie der UniversitŠt Bielefeld, Germany, Nov. 2001)
    71. Warshak, R.A. (2002), Misdiagnosis of Parental Alienation Syndrome. American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 20(1):31-52.
    72. Spangenberg, B and Spangenberg, E. (2002), Induszerte Umgangsverweigerung (PAS) Und Richterliche KreativitŠt. Familie, Partnerschaft Und Recht (FPR) 6 (2002): 256-257.
    73. Andritzky, W. (2002) Zur Problematik kinderärztlicher Atteste bei Umgangs- und Sorgerechtsstreitigkeiten – Mit Ergebnissen einer Befragung. Befragung Der Kinder- und Jugendarzt 33 (11): 885-889 and 33 (12): 984-990.
    74. Sobal, B. (2002) Article 13(b) of the Hague Convention Treaty: Does It Create a Loophole for Parental Alienation Syndrome–An Insidious Abduction? The International Lawyer, Fall 2001, Vol. 35, No. 3, pp. 997-1025.
    75. Hobbs, T. (2002) 'Parental Alienation Syndrome & UK Family Courts, The Dilemna, Pt. 1, Family Law 32:182-189.
    76. Hobbs, T. (2002) 'Parental Alienation Syndrome & UK Family Courts, The Dilemna Pt. 2, Family Law 32:381-387.
    77. Klenner, W. (2002) Szenarien der Entfremdung im elterlichen Trennungsprozess-Entwurf eines Handlungskonzepts von Prävention und Intervention, Jugendamt 89(2):48-57.
    78. Krause, M. (2002) PAS und seine Geschwister – Strukturell-systemische Überlegungen zur Gefährdung des Kindwohls durch sechs verschiedene Muster pathologischer Trennungsbewältigung, Zentralblatt für Jugendrecht (ZfJ) 75(1):2-6.
    79. Birchler-Hoop, U.: Elternentfremdung; in: Und Kinder, 21 (69) 2002: 37-52.
    80. Boch-Galhau, W.V. (2002), Le PAS: Impacts de la Séparation et du Divorce sur les Enfants et sur Leur Vie D'adulte, Synapse: Journal de Psychiatrie et Système Nerveux Central, No. 188, Septembre 2002.
    81. Andritzky, W. (2002), Verhaltensmuster und Persönlichkeitsstruktur entfremdender Eltern: Psychosoziale Diagnostik und Orientierungskriterien für Interventionen. (english title: Behavioral Patterns and Personality Structure of Alienating Parents: Psychosocial and Diagnostic Criteria for Intervention) Psychotherapie in Psychiatrie , Psychotherapeutischer medizin und Klnischer Psychologie 7 (4): 166-182.
    82. Jopt, U. J./ZŸtphen, J.(2002) Elterliche PASsivitŠt nach Trennung ö Zur Bedeutung des betreuenden Elternteils fŸr die PAS-Genese, in: Fabian, T., Jacobs, Nowara S., Rode, I. (Hrsg.); QualitŠtssicherung in der Rechtspsychologie, MŸnster, 2002.
    83. Boch-Galhau, W.V. (2002), Sindrome de Alienación Parental (PAS): Influencia de la seapración y el divorcio sobre la vida adulta de los hijos. Revista Argentina de Clinica Psicologica, XI, 113-138.
    84. Rybicki, D. (2003), Parental Alienation Syndrome. In: Childhood Disorders Diagnostic Desk Reference. Ed. E. Fletcher-Janzen and C.R. Reynolds, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    85. Camps, A. (2003), Psychiatrische und psychosomatische Konsequenzen für PAS-Kinder (english title: Psychiatric and Psychosomatic Consequences for PAS-Children) In The Parental Alienation Syndrome: An Interdisciplinary Challange for Professionals Involved in Divorce., eds. W. von Boch-Gallhau, U. Kodjoe, W Andritsky, and P. Koeppel, pp. 143-156. Berlin, Germany: VWB-Verlag für Wissenshaft and Bildung.
    86. von Boch, W. (2003), Folgen der PAS-Indoktrinierung für betroffene erwachsene Scheidungskinder (english title: Consequences of PAS-Indoctrination for Children of Divorce as Adults) In The Parental Alienation Syndrome: An Interdisciplinary Challange for Professionals Involved in Divorce., eds. W. von Boch-Gallhau, U. Kodjoe, W Andritsky, and P. Koeppel, pp. 157-162. Berlin, Germany: VWB-Verlag für Wissenshaft and Bildung.
    87. Kodjoe, U. (2003), Die Auswirkungen von Entfremdung und Kontaktabbruch auf betroffene Eltern (english title: Consequences of Alienation and Interruption of Contact for Alienated Parents) In The Parental Alienation Syndrome: An Interdisciplinary Challange for Professionals Involved in Divorce. eds. W. von Boch-Gallhau, U. Kodjoe, W Andritsky, and P. Koeppel, pp. 163-166. Berlin, Germany: VWB-Verlag für Wissenshaft and Bildung.
    88. von Boch, W. and Kodjoe, U. (2003), Zwei Fallvorstellungen: Interviews mit einem entfremdeten erwachsenen Scheidungskind und einer entfremdeten Mutter (english title: Two Case Demonstrations: Interviews with an Alienated Child of Divorce as Adult and an Alienated Mother) In The Parental Alienation Syndrome: An Interdisciplinary Challange for Professionals Involved in Divorce., eds. W. von Boch-Gallhau, U. Kodjoe, W Andritsky, and P. Koeppel, pp. 167-174. Berlin, Germany: VWB-Verlag für Wissenshaft and Bildung.
    89. Finkelstein, C. (2003), The Heart of an Abducted and Alienated Child In The Parental Alienation Syndrome: An Interdisciplinary Challange for Professionals Involved in Divorce., eds. W. von Boch-Gallhau, U. Kodjoe, W Andritsky, and P. Koeppel, pp. 175-179. Berlin, Germany: VWB-Verlag für Wissenshaft and Bildung.
    90. Warshak, R. (2003), Current Controversies Regarding the Parental Alienation Syndrome In The Parental Alienation Syndrome: An Interdisciplinary Challange for Professionals Involved in Divorce., eds. W. von Boch-Gallhau, U. Kodjoe, W Andritsky, and P. Koeppel, pp. 207-234. Berlin, Germany: VWB-Verlag für Wissenshaft and Bildung.
    91. Sjorgen, L.H. (2003), Einen Elternteil gefährlich machen: PAS in Schweden und Norwegen (english title: Making a Parent Dangerous :PAS in Sweden and Norway) In The Parental Alienation Syndrome: An Interdisciplinary Challange for Professionals Involved in Divorce., eds. W. von Boch-Gallhau, U. Kodjoe, W Andritsky, and P. Koeppel, pp. 235-248. Berlin, Germany: VWB-Verlag für Wissenshaft and Bildung.
    92. Andritsky, W. (2003), Entfremdungsstrategien im Sorgerechts- und Umgangsstreit: Zur Rolle von (kinder)ärztlichen und -psychiatrischen Attesten (english title: Alienation strategies in custody and visitation litigations: The role of pediatricians, physicians and psychiatrists.) In The Parental Alienation Syndrome: An Interdisciplinary Challange for Professionals Involved in Divorce., eds. W. von Boch-Gallhau, U. Kodjoe, W Andritsky, and P. Koeppel, pp. 249-282. Berlin, Germany: VWB-Verlag für Wissenshaft and Bildung.
    93. Andritsky, W. (2003), Verhaltensmuster und Persönlichkeitsstruktur entfremdender Eltern: Psychosoziale Diagnostik und Orientierungskriterien für Interventionen (english title: Alienating Parents: Psychosocial Diagnostics and Orientation Criteria for Intervention) In The Parental Alienation Syndrome: An Interdisciplinary Challange for Professionals Involved in Divorce., eds. W. von Boch-Gallhau, U. Kodjoe, W Andritsky, and P. Koeppel, pp. 283-314. Berlin, Germany: VWB-Verlag für Wissenshaft and Bildung.
    94. Fischer, W. (2003), Möglichkeiten von Verfahrenspflegern in der Arbeit mit PAS-Fällen Grundsätzliche Aspekte (english title: Working Strategies with PAS Cases for Guardians Ad Litem Fundamental Aspects) In The Parental Alienation Syndrome: An Interdisciplinary Challange for Professionals Involved in Divorce., eds. W. von Boch-Gallhau, U. Kodjoe, W Andritsky, and P. Koeppel, pp. 315-322. Berlin, Germany: VWB-Verlag für Wissenshaft and Bildung.
    95. Strohe, J. (2003), Möglichkeiten von Verfahrenspflegern in der Arbeit mit PAS-Fällen Eine Fallgeschichte (english title: Working Strategies with PAS Cases for Guardians Ad Litem:A Case History) In The Parental Alienation Syndrome: An Interdisciplinary Challange for Professionals Involved in Divorce., eds. W. von Boch-Gallhau, U. Kodjoe, W Andritsky, and P. Koeppel, pp. 323-332. Berlin, Germany: VWB-Verlag für Wissenshaft and Bildung.
    96. Knappert, C. (2003), Frühe Interventionsstrategien als Möglichkeiten der Jugendamtsmitarbeiter in der Arbeit mit PAS-Fällen (english title: Possible Early Intervention Strategies Implemented by Social Institutions Dealing with PAS Cases) In The Parental Alienation Syndrome: An Interdisciplinary Challange for Professionals Involved in Divorce., eds. W. von Boch-Gallhau, U. Kodjoe, W Andritsky, and P. Koeppel, pp. 333-342. Berlin, Germany: VWB-Verlag für Wissenshaft and Bildung.
    97. Blank, M. (2003), Anmerkungen zur Persönlichkeitsstruktur des betreuenden Elternteils als mögliche zentrale Ursache für die Entstehung eines elterlichen Entfremdungssyndroms (english title: Remarks on the Personality Structure of the Caring Parent as a Possible Central Cause for the Development of a Parental Alienation Syndrome) In The Parental Alienation Syndrome: An Interdisciplinary Challange for Professionals Involved in Divorce., eds. W. von Boch-Gallhau, U. Kodjoe, W Andritsky, and P. Koeppel, pp. 243-252. Berlin, Germany: VWB-Verlag für Wissenshaft and Bildung.
    98. Stuart-Mills-Hoch, P. and Hoch, R. (2003), Successful Reintegration of Severely Alienated Children and Their Parents In The Parental Alienation Syndrome: An Interdisciplinary Challange for Professionals Involved in Divorce., eds. W. von Boch-Gallhau, U. Kodjoe, W Andritsky, and P. Koeppel, pp. 253-266. Berlin, Germany: VWB-Verlag für Wissenshaft and Bildung.
    99. Finkelstein, C. (2003), PAS Perspectives: An Adult, Parentally Abducted and Alienated as a Child, Reflects on Current PAS Treatment Modules In The Parental Alienation Syndrome: An Interdisciplinary Challange for Professionals Involved in Divorce., eds. W. von Boch-Gallhau, U. Kodjoe, W Andritsky, and P. Koeppel, pp. 267-372. Berlin, Germany: VWB-Verlag für Wissenshaft and Bildung.
    100. Barden, R. C. (2003), Building Multi-Disciplinary Legal-Scientific Teams in PAS and Child Custody Cases In The Parental Alienation Syndrome: An Interdisciplinary Challange for Professionals Involved in Divorce., eds. W. von Boch-Gallhau, U. Kodjoe, W Andritsky, and P. Koeppel, pp. 373-382. Berlin, Germany: VWB-Verlag für Wissenshaft and Bildung.
    101. Dum, C.T. (2003), Begutachtete Aufsätze in Fachzeitschriften und das Parental Alienation Syndrom (english title: Peer-Reviewed Articles in Professional Journals Dealing with the Parental Alienation Syndrome) In The Parental Alienation Syndrome: An Interdisciplinary Challange for Professionals Involved in Divorce., eds. W. von Boch-Gallhau, U. Kodjoe, W Andritsky, and P. Koeppel, pp. 383-390. Berlin, Germany: VWB-Verlag für Wissenshaft and Bildung.
    102. ten Hövel, G. (2003), Liebe Mama, böser Papa: Eltern-Kind_entfremdung nach Trennung und Scheidung: Das PAS-Syndrom, Munich, Germany: Kösel Verlag.
    103. Warshak, R. A. (2003), Bringing Sense to Parental Alienation: A Look At the Disputes and the Evidence. Family Law Quarterly, 37(2): 273-301.
    104. Rueda, C. (2004), An Inter-rater Reliability Study of Parental Alienation Syndrome. American Journal of Family Therapy, 32(5) 391-403.
    105. Andre, K. (2004), Parental Alienation Syndrome. Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association, Winter 7-11.
    106. Aguilar, J. M. (2004), Síndrome de Alienación Parental. Hijos manipulados por un cónyuge para odiar al otro, Cordoba, Spain: Almuzara Editorial.
    107. Baurain, M. (2005), Pour Poser Les Terms Du Débat, Divorce et Séparation, 3, 5-12.
    108. Van Gijseghem, H. (2005), L'aliénation parentale: points controversés, Divorce et Séparation, 3, 19-28.
    109. Gagné, M. and Darpeau, S. (2005), L'aliénation parentale est-elle une forme de maltraitance psychologique?, Divorce et Séparation, 3, 29-42.
    110. Rault, F. (2005), Séparation et allégations d'abus sexuels, Divorce et Séparation, 3, 43-56.
    111. Rathmes, J. (2005), L'heur de l'enfant – Leurre du juge, Divorce et Séparation, 3, 57-76.
    112. Bensussan, P. (2005), Intervieuw du Docteur Bensussan, Divorce et Séparation, 3, 77-90.
    113. Boch-Galhau, W. von and Kodjoe, U. (2005), Syndrome d'aliénation parentale: une forme de maltraitance psychologique des enfants en ca de séparation ou de divorce conflictuel des parents, Divorce et Séparation, 3, 91-116.
    114. Erwoine, D. (2005), Les traitements du syndrome d'aliénation parentale, Divorce et Séparation, 3, 117-126.
    115. Odyniec, H. (2005), De l'enfant-otage à l'enfant-soldat: chroniques de guerres familiales, Divorce et Séparation, 3, 127-137.
    116. Baker, A.J.L. (2005), The long-Term Effects of Parental Aienation on Adult Children: A Qualitative Research Study, American Journal of Family Therapy, 33, 289-302.
    117. Spruijt, E., Eikelenbook, B., Harmeling, J., Stokkers, R. and Kormos, H. (2005), Parental Alienation Syndrome in the Netherlands, American Journal of Family Therapy, 33, 303-318.
    118. Campbell, T. (2005), Why Doesn't Parental Alienation Occur More Frequently? The Significance of Role Discrimination, American Journal of Family Therapy, 33, 365-378.
    119. Ellis, E.M. (2005), Help for the Alienated Parent, American Journal of Family Therapy, 33, 415-426.
    120. Warshak R.A. (2005), Eltern-Kind-Entfremdung und Sozialwissenschaften – Sachlichkeit statt Polemik, Zentralblatt für Jugendrecht (ZfJ) No.5, May (2005): 186-200.
    121. Baker, A.J.L. (2005), The Cult of Parenthood: A Qualitative Study of Parental Alienation, Cultic Studies Review,4, [page #s not yet available]
    122. Baker A.J.L. (2005), Parental Alienation Strategies: A Qualitative Study of Adults Who Experienced Parental Alienation As a Child, American Journal of Forensic Psychology,23, [page #s not yet available]
    123. Delfieu, J.-M. (2005), Expert près la cour d’appel de Nimes: Syndrome d’aliénation parentale Diagnostic et prise en charge médico-juridique, Experts, No. 67, 24-30.
    124. Napp-Peters, A. (2005), Mehrelternfamilien als „Normal“-Familien – Ausgrenzung und Eltern-Kind-Entfremdung nach Trennung und Scheidung. In: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie, 54 (10), 792–801.
    125. Rand, D., Rand, R., and Kopetski, L. (2005), The Spectrum of Parental Alienation Syndrome (part III): The Kopetski Follow Up Study, American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 23(1): 15-43.
    126. Baker, A.J.L. (2006, in press), Patterns of Parental Alienation: A Qualitative Research Study, American Journal of Family Therapy,34, 1-16.
    127. Baker, A.J.L. (2006), in press), Behaviors and Strategies of Parental Alienation: A Survey of Parental Experiences, Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 45(1/2), [page #s not yet available].
    128. Baker, A.J.L. (in press), The Power of Stories: Stories About Power. Why Therapists and Clients Should Read Stories About the Parental Alienation Syndrome, American Journal of Family Therapy.
    129. Steinberger, C. (2006), Father? What Father? Parental Alienation and Its Effect on Children, Family Law Review, 38 (1).
    130. Gardner, R.A., Sauber, S. R., and Lorandos, D. (2006), The International Handbook of Parental Alienation Syndrome, Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas. This book consists of 34 chapters. The chapters will be listed separately when time permits.
    131. Weigel, D.J. and Donovan, K.A. (2006), Parental Alienation Syndrome: Diagnostic and Triadic Perspectives, The Family Journal,14(3), 274-282.

    SECTION 3

    Additional publications with material relevant to pathological alienation. (48 items)

    1. Huntingon, D. S. (1986), The Forgotten Figures in Divorce, and Fatherhood: the Struggle for Parental Identity. Ed. Jacobs, J.W.Washington, D.C.: The American Psychiatric Association Press
    2. Lampel, A. (1986), Post-divorce therapy with high conflict families. The Independent Practioner, Bulletin of the Division of Psychologists in Independent Practice, Division 42 of the American Psychological Association, 6(3):22-6.
    3. Jacobs, J. W. (1988), Euripidies' Medea: a psychodynamic model of severe divorce pathology. American Journal of Psychotherapy, XLII(2):308-319.
    4. Johnston, J. R. and Campbell, L. E. (1988), Impasses of Divorce: The Dynamics and Resolution of Family Conflict. New York: The Free Press.
    5. Blush, G. J. and Ross, K. L. (1990), Investigation and case management issues and strategies. Issues in Child Abuse Accusations. 2(3): 152-160.
    6. Wakefield, H. and Underwager, R. (1990), Personality characteristics of parents making false accusations of sexual abuse in custody disputes. Issues in Child Abuse Accusations, 2(3):121-136.
    7. Ross, K.L. and Blush, G.J. (1990), Sexual Abuse validity discriminators in the divorced or divorcing family. Issues in Child Abuse Accusations, 2(1):1-6.
    8. Theonnes, N. and Tjaden, P.G. (1990), The extent, nature, and validity of sexual abuse allegations in custody visitation disputes. Child Abuse & Neglect, 12:151-163.
    9. The California Child Abuse and Neglect Reporting Law: Issues and Answers for Health Practitioners. State of California, 1991.
    10. Wakefield, H  and Underwager, R. (1991), Sexual abuse allegations in divorce and custody disputes. Behavioral Sciences and the Law,9:451-468.
    11. Patterson, D. (1991-92), The other victim: the falsely accused parent in a sexual abuse and custody case. Journal of Family Law, 30:919-941.
    12. Maccoby, E. E. and Mnookin, R. H. (1992), Dividing the Child: Social and Legal Dilemmas of Custody. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    13. Rogers, M. (1992), Delusional disorder and the evolution of mistaken sexual allegations in child custody cases. American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 10(l):47-69.
    14. Ceci, S. J  and Bruck, M. (1993), Suggestibility of the child witness: a historical review and synthesis. Psychological Bulletin, 113(3):403-439.
    15. Johnston, J. R. (1993), Children of Divorce Who Refuse Visitation. In Nonresidential Parenting: New Vistas in Family Living, ed. Depner, C. E. and Bray, J.H. London: Sage Publications.
    16. Rand, D. C. (1993), Munchausen syndrome by proxy: a complex type of emotional abuse responsible for some false allegations of child abuse in divorce. Issues in Child Abuse Accusations, 5(3)135-55.
    17. Johnston, J.R. and Campbell, L. E. (1993), Parent-Child Relationships in Domestic Violence Families Disputing Custody. Family & Conciliation Courts Review,31(3):2S2-298.
    18. Ackerman, M.J. and Kane, A.W. (1993), Psychological Experts in Divorce, Personal Injury, and Other Civil Actions, Second Edition Vol. 1, New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. §4.31 Parental Alienation Syndrome, pp142-147.
    19. Holstein-Sanders, C. (1993), When You Suspect the Worst. Family Advocate, Winter 1993:54-56.
    20. Byrne, K and Maloney, L. (1993), Intractable Access: Is There a Cure? Australian Family Lawyer 8(4):22-27.
    21. Sanders, C. H. (1993), When You Suspect the Worst: Bad-Faith Relocation, Fabricated Child Sexual Abuse and Parental Alienation. Family Advocate, winter:54-56.
    22. Ward, P. and Harvey, J. C. (1993), Family Wars: The Alienation of Children. New Hampshire Bar Journal,. March:30.
    1. Ward P. and Harvey, J.C., Familienkriege, die Entfremdung von Kindern. ZfJ Jhg. 85, Nr. 6/98, pp 237-245 (aus dem Amerikanischen übersetzt von C.T. Dum mit Vorbemerkungen von W. Klenner).
    23. Garrity, C.B. and Baris, M.A. (1994), Caught in the Middle: Protecting the Children of High-Conflict Divorce. New York: Lexington Books (an Imprint of Macmillan, Inc.).
    24. Guidelines for Child Custody Evaluations in Divorce Proceeding (1994). American Psychologist, 49(7)677-680.
    25. Hysjulien, C  Wood, B., and Benjamin, G.A.H. (1994), Child Custody Evaluations: A Review of Methods Used in Litigation and Alternative Dispute Resolution. Family and Conciliation Courts Review, 32(4):466-489.
    26. Feinberg, J. M. and Loeb, L. S. (1994), Custody and visitation interference: alternative remedies . American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers Journal, 12(2):271-284.
    27. Feinberg, J. M. and Loeb, L.S. (1994), Custody and Visitation Interference: Alternative Remedies. American Academy of matrimonial Lawyers, 12(2):271-284.
    28. Turkat, I.D. (1994). Child Visitation Interference in Divorce. Clinical Psychology Review, 14(8):737-742.
    29. Ackerman, M.J. (1995), Clinician's Guide to Child Custody Evaluations. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York.
    30. Bricklin, B. (1995), The Custody Evaluation Handbook: Research-Based Solutions and Applications. Brunner-Mazel, Inc. Bristol, PA.
    31. Ehrenberg, M. F. and Eiterman, M.F. (1995), Evaluating Allegations of Sexual Abuse in the Context of Divorce, Child Custody and Access Disputes. In True and False Allegations of Child Sexual Abuse: Assessment and Case Management. ed. Ncy, T. New York: Brunner/Mazel Publishers.
    32. Klenner, W., (1995), Rituale der Umgangsvereitelung bei Getrenntlebenden oder Geschiedenen Eltern. FamRZ, Jhg. 42, Heft 24, 15. Dez 1995, S. 1529-1535.
    33. Mapes, B. E. (1995), Child Eyewitness Testimony in Sexual Abuse Investigations. Brandon, Vermont: Clinical Psychology Publishing Co., Inc.
    34. Turkat, 1. D. (1995), Divorce Related Malicious Mother Syndrome. Journal of Family Violence, 10(3):253-264.
    35. Adams, J. K. (1996), Investigation and Interviews in Cases of Alleged Child Sexual Abuse: A Look at the Scientific Evidence. Issues in Child Abuse Accusations, 8(3/4):120-138.
    36. Jones, M.M. and Sullivan, M. (1996), Dealing with Parental Alienation in High Conflict Custody Cases. Presentation at Conference of the Association of Family and Conciliation Courts, San Antonio, TX.
    37. Lampel, A. (1996), Children's Alignment with Parents in Highly Conflicted Custody Cases. Family and Conciliation Courts Review, 34(2):229-239.
    38. Turkat, I.D. (1996), Relocation as a Strategy to Interfere with the Child-Parent Relationship, American Journal of Family Law, (11): 39-41.
    39. Campbell, T.W. (1997), Psychotherapy with Children of Divorce: the Pitfalls of Triangulated Relationships. Psychotherapy 29(4):646-652.
    40. Rooney, S. A. and Walker, T. F. (1999), Identification and treatment of alienated children in high-conflict divorce. In Innovations in Clinical Practice: A Source Book, Vol. 17, eds VandeCreek, L. and Jackson, T. L. et al., pp. 331-341. Sarasota, Florida: Professional Resource Press/Professional Resource Exchange, Inc.
    41. Stahl, P. M. (1999), Alienation and alignment of children. The California Psychologist , XXXII(3):23-29.
    42. Stahl, P. M. (1999), Complex Issues in Child Custody Evaluations. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.
    43. Lowenstein, L.F. (1999), Parental Alienation and the Judiciary, Medico-Legal Joiurnal, 67(3):121-123.
    44. Koeppel, P. (2000), Zur Bedeutung der Elscholz-Entscheidung  für die Fortentwicklung des deutchen Kindschaftrechts, Der Amtsvormund , 8/2000, pp 639-641.
    45. Büte, D. (2001), Das Umgangsrecht bei Kindern Geschiedner Oder Getrennt Lebender Eltern: Ausgestaltung – Verfahren – Vollstreckung. Bielefeld, Germany: Erich Schmidt Verlag.
    46. Bow, J.N., Quinell, F.A., Zaroff, M. and Assemony, A. (2002), Assessment of Sexual Abuse Allegations in Child Custody Cases. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 33(6):566-575.
    47. Warshak, R. A. (2003), Payoffs and Pitfalls of Listening to Children. Family Relations, 52(4), 373-384.
    48. Darnall, D. and Steinberg, B. (2008), Motivational Models for Spointaneous Reunification With the Alienated Child: Part I, American Journal of Family Therapy, 36(2), 107-115.

    SECTION 4 Book Reviews

    Reviews of Dr. Gardner's books on parental alienation syndrome. (11 items)

    1. Krivacska, J. J. (1989), The Parental Alienation Syndrome and the Differentiation Between Fabricated and Genuine Child Sex Abuse. Book Review. Issues in Child Abuse Accusations, 1(1):55-56.
    2. Levy, D. (1992), The Parental Alienation Syndrome: A Guide for Mental Health and Legal Professionals. Book Review. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 20(3):276-277.
    3. Underwager, R. (1992), The Parental Alienation Syndrome: A Guide for Mental Health and Legal Professionals. Book Review. Issues in Child Abuse Accusations, 4(2):108-109.
    4. Levy, D. (1992), Review of Parental Alienation Syndrome: A Guide for Mental Health and Legal Professionals. American Journal of Family Therapy, 20(3):276-277.
    5. Etemad, J. (1999), The Parental Alienation Syndrome, Second Edition. Book Review. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,38 (2): 223-225.
    6. Underwager, R. (1998), The Parental Alienation Syndrome: Second Edition.. Book Review. Issues in Child Abuse Accusations, 10:178.
    7. Reischer, H. (1999), The Parental Alienation Syndrome: A Guide for Mental Health and Legal Professionals. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law , 27(3): 504-506.
    8. Utesch, W. (1999), The Parental Alienation Syndrome, Second Edition. Book Review. The American Journal of Family Therapy,(in press).
    9. Turkel, A. (2001) Therapeutic Interventions for Children with Parental Alienation Syndrome Book Review. News for Women in Psychiatry, 19(4):17.
    10. Deming, J. (2001) Therapeutic Inteventions for Children with Parental Alienation Syndrome. Book Review. American Journal of Psychiatry and the Law, 29(4):505.
    11. Meister, R. (2001) Therapeutic Inteventions for Children with Parental Alienation Syndrome. Book Review. American Journal of Family Therapy, 31(4):351-354.

    SECTION 5 Frye and Mohan Rulings

    The Frye Test is the standard by which a court can determine whether a scientific contribution has gained enough general acceptance in the scientific community to be admissable in a court of law. The Frye Test criteria for admissability were applied to The Parental Alienation Syndrome in the following cases:

    * Kilgore v. Boyd, 13th Circuit Court, Hillsborough County, FL., Case No. 94-7573, 733 So. 2d 546 (Fla. 2d DCA 2000) Jan 30, 2001.
    o Boyd v. Kilgore, 773 So. 2d 546 (Fla. 3d DCA 2000) (Prohibition Denied)
    o Court ruling that the Parental Alienation Syndrome has gained general acceptance in the scientific community and thereby satisfies Frye Test criteria for admissibility.
    * Bates v. Bates 18th Judicial Circuit, Dupage County, IL Case No. 99D958, Jan 17, 2002.
    o Court ruling that the Parental Alienation Syndrome has gained general acceptance in the scientific community and thereby satisfies Frye Test criteria for admissibility.[excerpt]

    In Canada, the Mohan Test is applied to assess admissablity. It is more stringent than the Frye Test in that it employs more criteria than Frye. The Mohan Test was applied to the Parental Alienation Syndrome in the following case(s):

    * Her Majesty the Queen vs. K.C. Superior Court of Justice, Ontario, County of Durham, Central-East Region, Court File No. 9520/01. August, 9, 2002

    SECTION 6 Additional Publications Not Referenced Above

    The American Psychological Association has published guidelines* for child-custody evaluations in divorce proceedings. These are the guidelines The American Psychological Association proposes that examiners use when conducting such examinations. The Guidelines provide another index of the value of the PAS concept to child custody evaluators. The Guidelines conclude with a highly selective reference section titled "Pertinent Literature." Three of the 39 references are books by Dr. Gardner; one is titled "The Parental Alienation Syndrome" and the other two include discussions about PAS.

    * Gardner, R.A. (1989), Family Evaluation in Child Custody Mediation, Arbitration, and Litigation. Cresskill, NJ: Creative Therapeutics,Inc.
    * Gardner, R. A. (1992), The Parental Alienation Syndrome: A Guide for Mental Health and Legal Professionals. Cresskill, NJ: Creative Therapeutics,Inc.
    * Gardner, R. A. (1992), True and False Accusations of Child Sex Abuse. Cresskill, NJ: Creative Therapeutics, Inc.

    * Guidelines for Child Custody Evaluation in Divorce Proceedings. Washington, D.C.: American
    Psychological Association (1994).

    The Family Law Section of the American Bar Association published Clawar and Rivlin's book Children Held Hostage: Dealing with Programmed and Brainwashed Children.** The following book by Dr. Gardner is referenced:

    * Gardner, R.A. (1987),The Parental Alienation Syndrome and the Differentiation Between Fabricated and Genuine Child Sex Abuse Cresskill, NJ: Creative Therapeutics, Inc.

    **Clawar, S. and Rivlin, B.V. (1991), Children Held Hostage: Dealing with Programmed and Brainwashed Children . Chicago, IL:Division of Family Law, American Bar Association.

    The State Bar of Texas, Family Law Section, published in 1999 its Expert Witness Manual. The section: Psychological Syndromes includes a chapter entitled Psychological Syndromes: Parental Alienation Syndrome (Chapter 3-32). The purpose of this chapter is to provide guidelines for mental health and legal professionals who work in courts of law.

    * Warshak, R.A. (1999), Psychological Syndromes:Parental Alienation Syndrome. Expert Witness Manual, Chapter 3-32. Dallas, TX: State Bar of Texas, Family Law Section.

    The State Bar of Texas published in 2002 its Family Law Course. Chapter 22 is entitled Parental Alienation: Syndrome or Symptom.

    * Hirsch, R.A. (2002), Parental Alienation Syndrome: Syndrome or Symptom. Advanced Family Law Course 2002, Chapter 72. Dallas, TX: State Bar of Texas.

    * Warshak, R.A. (2002), Divorce Poison: Protecting the Parent-Child Bond From a Vindictive Ex. New York: ReganBooks.

  3. justice4mothers on September 27, 2008 at 3:08 pm

    Gardner's self-published work is extremely deficient scientifically, exhibits extreme gender-bias toward women and assumes that all women are vindictive and all children are liars. This "syndrome" he has purported is not based on systematic research, instead developed from personal observation and prejudices. Gardner never tested his theory, it has never been subjected to peer review, and most of its foundational assumptions have been disproved. Virtually every symptom Gardner describes as evidence of Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS) is open to opposing interpretations. PAS is not recognized as a valid medical syndrome by either the AMA or the APA. Gardner's recommendations to send children to juvenile detention centers and mothers to jail for reporting abuse fly in the face of the goal of any therapy or treatment–establishing trust and "do no harm". This is nothing more than one man's opinion which is now being used across the country as a slick legal defense for abusive parents to gain custody of their victims and exact revenge upon the protective parent. It should not be relied upon by any reasonable person. Mental health professionals should be cautioned against using such an unscientific and harmful ideology in custody evaluations, as it could potentially result in ethics violations and malpractice claims by protective parents and their children who have been irreparably harmed by incompetent assessments.

    It is amazing that such misogynistic junk science could be given the time of day in a court of law, but it has. Gardner's work has permeated and corrupted custody legislation, judicial training, custody evaluator training, and mental health professional training to the detriment of women and children. Protective mothers must be aware of how this purported "syndrome" can and will be used against them and their children in child custody litigation. The first step is identifying just how bizarre Gardner's writings and thought processes were:

    Here are just a few of the outrageous statements that Richard Gardner has written in his own books published by his own vanity press:

    "Pertinent to my theory here is that pedophilia also serves procreative purposes. Obviously, it does not serve such purposes on the immediate level in that children cannot become pregnant nor can they make others pregnant.
    However, the child who is drawn into sexual encounters at an early age is likely to become highly sexualized and crave sexual experiences during the prepubertal years. Such a "charged up child" is more likely to become sexually active after puberty and more likely, therefore, to transmit his or her genes to his or her progeny at an early age.
    The younger the survival machine at the time sexual urges appear, the longer will be the span of procreative capacity, and the greater the likelihood the individual will create more survival machines in the next generation. The ideal then – from DNA's point of view – is for the child to be sexually active very early, to have a highly sexualized childhood, and begin the time of puberty. This increases the likelihood that more survival machines will be produced for the next generation. (…)
    This reflects society's repression of the animal within us: a male animal who has the potential for rape and a female animal who, by merely a small extension of permissible attitudes, may become masochistic – thereby gaining sexual pleasure from being beaten, bound and otherwise made to suffer. It may very well be that, for some masochistic women, allowing themselves to be beaten into submission is the price they are willing to pay for gaining the gratification of receiving the sperm."
    Gardner's sociobiologist ideology has him endorse all "paraphilias" (merely atypical sexual behaviors) as "serving the purposes of species survival" by "their ability to enhance the general level of sexual excitation in society and thereby increase the likelihood that people will involve themselves in activities that are more directly contributory to the reproductive (and by extension, species survival) process".
    This extends not only to pedophilia but even to zoophilia and, yes, necrophilia. In the same essay Gardner writes: "Yet, the necrophiliac is still keeping (the likelihood) of heterosexual involvement with a person who is more likely to conceive."
    Gardner says that "the mother's own suppressed and repressed sexual fantasies are projected onto the child and father. By visualizing the father having a sexual experience with the child, the mother is satisfying vicariously her own desires to be the recipient of such overtures and activities."
    According to Gardner, 90% of "alienators" are women.
    "In custody litigation,…the vast majority of children who profess sexual abuse are fabricators."
    ''What I am against is the excessively moralistic and punitive reaction that many members of our society have toward pedophiles … (going) far beyond what I consider to be the gravity of the crime.''
    "…there is a bit of pedophilia in every one of us."
    When a child has been sexually abused and feels guilt about it, Gardner suggests, the child may be helped to appreciate that "sexual encounters between an adult and a child are not universally considered to be reprehensible acts. The child might be told about other societies in which such behavior was and is considered normal." If sexual urges continue after the abuse ends, Gardner suggests such children be encouraged to masturbate.

    As for the alienating mother, Gardner suggests that vibrators can be useful and "one must try to overcome any inhibition she may have with regard to their use."
    . . . . An apparent benefit of the mother's use of a vibrator is that "her diminished guilt over masturbation will make it easier for her to encourage the practice in her daughter, if this is warranted." With this imagined solution, Gardner believes, the mother's "increased sexuality may lessen the need for her husband to return to their daughter for sexual gratification."

    All of the above quotes are from Gardner's self-published True and False Accusations of Child Sex Abuse: A Guide for Legal and Mental Health Professionals, Creative Therapeutics, 1992, as reprinted in Ralph Underwager's self-published journal "Issues in Child Abuse Accusations", Spring 1993, pp. 115-118, under the title "A Theory About the Variety of Human Sexual Behavior" and Richard A. Gardner, M.D. , The Parental Alienation Syndrome (1992).

    "What would a good mother do if her child told her of sexual abuse by his or her father?", asked film produce Garland Waller during a videotaped interview of Richard Gardner for her award-winning documentary, Small Justice. His answer: "What would she say? Don't you say that about your father. If you do, I'll beat you."
    It boggles the mind to think that this man's ideas have been more persuasive to some judges and evaluators than the sworn testimony of abused women and children.

  4. Robert Gartner on September 28, 2008 at 2:20 am

    Oh Yes PAS is real. And there was those lurking in courtrooms form the most pretigious law firms Fulbright and Jaworski, Llp and Haynes and Boone, Llp packing their heat to support the alienators. Justice for Children uses them. They have long maintained that PAS is junk science. They supported the biased film paid for by the Mary Kay Foundation, Breaking Silence: Children's Stories. Justice for Children took and destroyed me and my daughter seventeen years ago.

    The odd thing to me is that these groups have to attach gender to their rejections! Have they not read the great work of Anne Wilson Schaef, When Society Becomes An Addict, Harper and Row, 1986 a book born in the same year as my precious daughter? Even Ms. Schaef realized that her previous works were flawed and incomplete when she attained the understanding in this book. She too had postulated that it was a white male system that did it all to women. When she found the disease concept she became free and reached the truth of the matter.
    I am certain she does not disagree with the credibility of PAS.

    FOr further reading please access Amy JL Baker's, Adult CHildren of Parental Alienation, or D.r Stephen Baskerville's, Taken Into Custody. Go to http://www.paao.org

  5. J. Soltys on September 29, 2008 at 1:30 am

    To Justice 4 Mothers,

    If Dr. Gardner is such a wacko as you say, then why does the American Psychological Association (APA) use his work as a guideline for divorce proceedings? Quoted from Les Veskrna, MD, a shared parenting advocate:

    "The APA has well-known guidelines for child-custody evaluations in divorce proceedings. These are the guidelines the APA proposes examiners use when conducting such evaluations. The guidelines refer to three books of Dr. Gardner’s as “pertinent literature.” One book is completely devoted to the PAS and two make significant reference to the disorder:

    Gardner, R.A. (1989), Family Evaluation in Child Custody Mediation, Arbitration,
    and Litigation. Cresskill, NJ: Creative Therapeutics, Inc.

    Gardner, R. A. (1992), The Parental Alienation Syndrome: A Guide for Mental
    Health and Legal Professionals. Cresskill, NJ: Creative Therapeutics, Inc.

    Gardner, R. A. (1992), True and False Accusations of Child Sex Abuse. Cresskill,
    NJ: Creative Therapeutics, Inc.

    Furthermore, the APA has provided a workshop for its member psychologists in
    recent years that has included a definition and identification of Parental
    Alienation Syndrome. In addition, the APA publishes a book (Divorce Wars:
    Interventions with Families in Conflict by Elizabeth Ellis, PhD, May, 2000) with
    a chapter specifically devoted to Parental Alienation Syndrome (Chapter 8: A New
    Challenge for Family Courts)."

    Why are you leaving out this important information in your argument? While the APA does not endorse PAS, they do not deny it either, confirmed by the information above which shows it is an integral part of their work.

    Furthermore, from Glenn Sacks website:

    "In 2005, PBS aired Breaking the Silence, a film attacking fathers and Parental Alienation Syndrome. We organized a successful campaign against the film which led PBS to promise to make a balanced, fair documentary on the subject–a commitment PBS kept.
    During the controversy over the film, the film's feminist supporters insisted that Parental Alienation Syndrome had been discredited and attacked by the American Psychological Association. In the documentary Joan Meier, a professor of clinical law at George Washington University and one of the film's chief spokespersons, states that PAS "has been thoroughly debunked by the American Psychological Association." Connecticut Public Television, one of the film's producers, put out a press release promoting the film which stated that PAS had been "discredited by the American Psychological Association."
    Rhea K. Farberman, Executive Director of Public and Member Communications of the American Psychological Association, retorted that these feminist claims are "incorrect" and "inaccurate," and that the APA "does not have an official position on parental alienation syndrome–pro or con."

    And if PAS is junk science as you claim, then why has the American Bar Association taken a position in it's favor? For example, "a longitudinal study published by the American Bar Association in 2003 followed 700 "high conflict" divorce cases over a 12 year period and found that elements of PA were present in the vast majority of the cases studied."

    Furthermore, the UK legal system has also lent credibility to the concept of PAS:

    Lady Justice Hale (in Re K (Contact: Psychiatric Report) [1995] 2 FLR 432) stated:

    "It is my unhappy experience, borne out by other anecdotal evidence and confirmed by the Official Solicitor's department that there seems to be an increasing number of cases coming before the family courts where contact between a young child and the absent parent has become bedevilled by stubborn opposition to contact being shown by the child which may, or may not, be evidence of some implacable hostility on the part of the other parent for good reason or for no reason at all."

    Lady Elizabeth Butler-Sloss, President of the Family division, (the top UK family court judge) stated (in Re L, V, M, H (Contact: Domestic Violence) [2002] 2 FLR 334 at 351):

    "There is, of course, no doubt that some parents, particularly mothers, are responsible for alienating their children from their fathers without good reason and thereby creating this sometimes insoluble problem. That unhappy state of affairs, well known in family courts, is a long way from recognised syndrome requiring mental health professionals to play an expert role."

    And if Dr. Gardner is so hateful towards women and children, then please explain this quote from him:

    "Unfortunately, the term parental alienation syndrome is often used to refer to the animosity that a child may harbor against a parent who has actually abused the child, especially over an extended period. The term has been used to apply to the major categories of parental abuse, namely, physical, sexual, and emotional. Such application indicates a misunderstanding of the parental alienation syndrome. The term is applicable only when the parent has not exhibited anything close to the degree of alienating behavior that might warrant the campaign of denigration exhibited by the child."

    Quite the voice of reason and sensibility, and completely contrary to how you portray him.

    I stand by what I wrote. I said PAS is controversial, so with that being established, in my own opinion, from my own experiences, I find it very plausible.

    J. Soltys

  6. havetosay on October 6, 2008 at 3:37 am

    Ira Turkat tells us that parental alienation is abuse. Some mothers do it to fathers & some fathers do the same to mothers. The controversy is because the right kind of research studies haven’t been done yet

  7. Robert on November 15, 2008 at 12:29 pm

    How can one prove this is happening in a child custody case??????

  8. How to Get Six Pack on April 15, 2009 at 3:28 am

    Hey, cool tips. Perhaps I'll buy a bottle of beer to that person from that forum who told me to visit your site 🙂

  9. F. Zaner on September 27, 2010 at 8:18 am

    A note on “malicious mother syndrome”: Dr. Ira Turkat changed the label to Divorce Related Malicious Parent Syndrome

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